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1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?
2. Bitcoin’s core featuresFor a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) modelA UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
Nakamoto consensusIn the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.
Block productionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.
Block time and mining difficultyBlock time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.
What are orphan blocks?In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.
3. Bitcoin’s additional features
Segregated Witness (SegWit)Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.
Lightning NetworkLightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.
Schnorr Signature upgrade proposalElliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.
4. Economics and supply distributionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
We're not here to reinvent the wheel. We're here to make it run smoother for you, and we provide some of the most useful services you'll find on the internet, made in a way that is easy to understand and use on a daily basis. In short, we're a bunch of people that claim to be Crypto Evangelists. We strongly believe in cryptocurrencies, and our main promise is to push them up so more people get involved and take all the advantages they offer.
Back in 2014, the world was taken by storm when Facebook approved the first cryptocurrencies tipping apps. The first was for Dogecoin, and the second was for multiple coins.More info about Blockchain Financial wallet on .
The project was hosted on whitepuma.net, and persisted for almost two years, built up a massive user community and gave a home to Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin and dozens of other bitcoin-based altcoins.
After very active months, the tipping hype started to fade away. Then, the developers decided to jump into the next stage: bringing not only tipping, but also mining and a widget that could be embedded on websites to allow everyone to accept payments. Sadly, the work was never completed because the project started to require an unsustainable amount of resources. Then, in a painful decision, a shutdown was announced by December 2015.
A couple of months after whitepuma.net was closed, the source code was released by its creator as Open Source on GitHub. But it wasn't maintained.
Now, some of the original members of the dev and admin teams gathered up with a handful of the WhitePuma's elite users, and decided to make something good with the best pieces of the old source code. That, with fresh new ideas and the power of the BardCanvas engine, synthesized the core of Blockchain Financial.
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I. Project OverviewCocos-BCX is a platform used for the development, operation, management and transfer of decentralized applications and in-application assets on the blockchain ecosystem. The platform mainly includes three function modules:
（1）The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
（2）Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
（3）An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Cocos-BCX can allow developers to perform programming, debugging, and publishing of decentralized applications oriented to the blockchain environment, and hybrid architecture applications. Meanwhile, the platform integrates the distributed user account system, wallet and digital asset circulation platform based on the blockchain, which can realize the permanent saving and cross-chain use of in-application assets.
II. Project evaluation
(一) Market analysis
1. Market conditions | 8 pointsThe organizing pattern of productivity dominated by governments in some areas or industrial domains is apt to change in the context of bottlenecks existing for global scientific and technological progress, rising resource consumption, an aging population, and intensified geopolitical conflicts. In particular, in 2008, when Nakamot published his thesis "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System", discussions on blockchain and digital currency have gradually extended from technological aspects to economic, social and political, and other fields. The general public have begun to pay close attention to the impact of blockchain on social development as well as the role of digital currency in the world economy. Based on the decentralized characteristics of the blockchain and the vibrant vitality of the digital economy, the general public has enough confidence to predict that the decentralized "digital assets" will be a sweeping trend in the future, and will derive new business models and social values.
At the same time, in the development process of decentralized applications of different types, the game industry enjoys unique development advantages, because the game's production mode is the most sophisticated, enjoys the highest degree in terms of commercialization, and is one of the scenarios with the most profound foundation in terms of developers and users.
u Analysis: The game field has a huge room for development, which is highly consistent with the characteristics of the blockchain, and accords with the future development tendency of the digital economy.
The digital asset economy model carried by the project through the blockchain technology will assetize the content produced by the developer, enable the developer to continue reaping benefits during the use, management and transfer of his assets, and provide him with a convenient, decentralized game distribution channel; meanwhile, it helps players to transform the data formed by time and energy as well as the props they obtain as a result of their consumption into the assets that can be safely stored and circulated, offering players the right to manage and commercialize them.
2. Competition | 8 pointsSince the last century till now, owing to the sustained efforts and promotion by a variety of IT technology game enterprises, the national and even global online game market is developing by leaps and bounds. If there is no systematic risks, such as policy regulation, vicious incidents and other factors, there will be no smooth and endless development momentum unless something unexpected happens. However, an objective analysis reveals that the current online game market is still dominated by IT technology companies, and even in a controlled and monopolized development, which, of course, also brings substantial profits, such as Tencent, Blizzard Tech.
u Analysis: It can be predicted that the Cocos-BCX project will hardly have any direct competitors in the strict sense for the time being, but will encounter a marginal pressure competitive environment from two dimensions. In summary, the classical IT game companies at home and abroad are massive in size and have obvious capital advantages. However, the Cocos-BCX project has an advanced philosophy and cutting edge technology, and thereby enjoys first-mover advantages for a breakthrough; The blockchain game project of the same business is currently marked by wide participation and generic applicability. But in comparison, the Cocos-BCX game industry has such advantages as a salient background, special project orientation and sophisticated development in technical modules, and therefore has greater development potential.
(二) Token Status
1. Token situation | 6 points(1) Basic situation of Token
Token name: COCOS
Total tokens in circulation: 100 billion
Consensus mechanism: DPOS
(2) Token usage and allocation
Part I 82%: Cocos-BCX is used for the platform community construction in various ways, including but not limited to the witness' block reward, incentives for platform ecological developers, global community construction, marketing and promotion, industry alliances, eco-investment, research, financial and legal compliance. The use of this part of Cocos-BCX includes swapping by means of the consensus work contributions, free gifts, gifts in exchange for service, and gifts in exchange for other tokens, etc.
Part II, 18%: Cocos-BCX is intended as incentives for the sponsoring team of the project. The incentive part will set up a locking mechanism, which will be issued and unlocked one-third at the end of each year after Token generation, and the issuance will be completed within three years.
u Analysis: The use of Token is mainly divided into two parts, among which, 82% is used for project development and construction. The remaining 18%, which has a locked position mechanism, is intended for team incentive and construction. The use design is rather rational, but the team part is slightly higher. Given that the industry is in the initial stage of development, it is of great importance to seize the first opportunity and acquire early traffic users. It is suggested that the proportion of Token used by the team be reduced slightly, which is more conducive to the long-term development of the project. It should be noted that the original holding distribution of Token has not been queried via the official channel, while this link for the conventional blockchain project are basically disclosed. Meanwhile, from the standpoint of ordinary investors, Token’s original holding ratio is also one of the important parameters for its investment.
2. Ecological cycle | 8 points（1）The Token (COCOS) positioning of the platform: circulation media and governance proof in eco-economic activities
COCOS not only serves as a value exchange carrier and community participation proof for Cocox-BCX, but its orientation as a basic pricing Token is likely to play a critical role in the digital asset ecosystem. With the continuous development of the industry, a large quantity of decentralized digital assets will exist in multiple blockchain ecosystems according to different standards in the future, and the value existing in asset pricing media transcending the chain ecology will be infinitely magnified.
, which is specifically manifested in that developers and users can evaluate, compare, trade and manage digital assets of different chain ecosystems, worldview content, and technical standards based on COCOS. Meanwhile, as a primary and basic pricing medium, COCOS is positioned to become the necessary conditions for the blockchain industry to develop and trade financial products and derivatives of digital assets in the future.
（2）Basic use model of Token (COCOS)
Ø Value exchange medium within the platform ecosystem;
Ø Entrusted consensus equity share representative of the Cocos-BCX public blockchain;
Ø The reference and basis for the measurement of the participation in and contribution to the platform community.
（3）How to obtain Token (COCOS)
Ø Value creation: It includes the contribution of the behavior of creating digital assets, that is, developing games, making props, etc.
Ø Platform contribution reward: Users who contribute to the Cocos-BCX community is entitled to COCOS;
Ø Market transaction: Selling the prop assets obtained in the game to get COCOS;
Ø Behavioral incentives: Various effective behaviors within the Cocos-BCX platform, community and platform games will be converted into COCOS
according to a certain contribution degree.
u Analysis: The use model, scenario application, acquisition method, market orientation, etc. for the Token ecosystem design are all well deliberated, to be verified by the market.
The ecosystem design of the Token project not only takes the macroscopic use model and scenario application, but also gives a detailed description of the acquisition method. Another point that must be pointed out is that it has a clear market orientation and future prospect as soon as the design begins, therefore, in general the Token ecosystem design is well-considered and far-sighted. However, for the volatile blockchain market, the crux depends on whether the ecological design philosophy can keep pace with the times, which is very essential. In a word, in the face of massive uncertainties, it needs to be finally verified by the market.
(三) Team member
1. Founder | 8 points
China's renowned Internet serial entrepreneur, and has successively led and participated in the creation of Joyo.com, Xcar.com.cn, and cdn.yeeyan.org since 1999, and founded Chukong Technology in 2009. Chukong is a leading game development and distribution enterprise in China and a major maintainer and supporter of the Cocos-BCX global open source game engine and developer community.
With over 14 years of experience in technology entrepreneurship and investment, he once co-founded China's leading entertainment social networking company. As an investor, he once worked for China's leading private equity fund, during which period, he led and participated in investment projects totalling over 1 billion US dollars, and realized the exit of some projects at home and abroad. His interests and expertise mainly concentrate on information technology of the global primary market and secondary market in the later stage, and macro multiple asset category investment, and has a profound understanding of the financial market mechanism and asset pricing. He is also an investment partner in China's major technology investment fund and provides counselling for Chinese and American hedge funds, venture capital funds and large enterprises.
u Analysis: Chen Haozhi, as a founder, has rich experience in the game industry, and enjoys widespread networking and abundant resources in the industry as being one of the early Internet entrepreneurs; Another founder, Yang Xiaolong, has a strong experience in technology venture capital investment, and has the expertise for global investment layout. On the whole, two co-founders have a prominent advantage in overall industry background and integrating resources.
2. Founding team | 8 points
Kevin Yin: An early contributor of CocosChina community, NOI winner, and ACM guest. A senior developer of blockchain, and having years of experience in compilation and distributed computing. An investor of the blockchain technology.
Jane Jin: Responsible for CocosChina community, the "Aipuworks" incubator, etc., and an expert of the Techincal Committee for Blockchain, China Software Industry Association. Bachelor of Economics, Zhejiang Gongshang University, and mini-EMBA of Tsinghua University. He once served important functions in "Fortune Global 500" including Lucent, Nortel, NSN, Nokia, Intel and other multinational companies in the marketing, sales, executive and developer relationship domain.
James Jeon: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2012 to 2015, he served as CEO of Gurum Company, a South Korean subsidiary of Chukong Technologies, earning an annual revenue of over $30 million from the scratch for the South Korean company and leading the South Korean subsidiary in going public successfully.
Frederick Lim: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2014 to 2015, he served as co-CEO of Gurum Company, and was once the director of the Strategic Investment Department of Hyundai Group, responsible for investment in Internet, communication, telecommunications and other fields. He is a doctor of Engineering Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
Hirokuni Fujita: originally head of the Japanese subsidiary of Chukong Technologies. He graduated from Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, majoring in Interdisciplinary Cultural Studies.
Jason: preacher of the Cocos-BCX community and meanwhile, senior manager of the Cocos 2d-x global community. He started to program on the Commodore-64 computer when he was 8. In addition to developing the community, he was keen on studying mathematics, finance, C++ and improving his Chinese proficiency.
Qinzhou Wang: Since entering the game industry in 2009, he has worked in the brand market in ZOL. Com. CN, Howell Expo, host of ChinaJoy, and is responsible for the brand market in Chukong Technologies.
u Analysis: The special technological talent construction of the team technicians needs to be further strengthened. At present, there is a blockchain technician. The game background and the advantages of the international architecture building enjoy prominent advantages, and there are sufficient team members on the strategic level and in the aspect of ecological construction. It is worth mentioning that team building is stable, and there is a high level of consensus among team members, which is conducive to the robust development of the project.
One member of the founding team has experience in the blockchain project development, that is, Chief Technical Officer, who is a senior blockchain developer. He has many years of experience in compiling and distributed computing, and is also a technology investor of blockchain.
In the early stage, owing to the demand of the game industry in the Japanese and Korean markets, Japanese and Korean market leaders were specially arranged in the early team structure of Chukong Technologies. In particular, due to the prosperity and popularity of the game industry in the Korean market, two co-leaders were specially arranged for the Korea market, responsible for strategic and investment issues respectively.
Consultant Team | 8 points
Zhe Wang: Founder of the Cocos engine, and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software Co., Ltd. He graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University, and later studied a postgraduate program at Department of Management Science, Xiamen University. He created the Cocos engine in 2011, which currently has 1.1 million registered developers worldwide and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions in the world. The Cocos engine has arrested the attention of platform vendors at home and abroad, and has established a long-term cooperative partnership with Microsoft, Google, ARM, Intel, Qualcomm, Samsung, Huawei and Tencent, etc.
Edith Yeung: One of some "Silicon Valley's Must Meet" investors as covered in Inc magazine. She is the head of 500 Startups, Silicon Valley's famous venture capital company and incubator in Greater China, and meanwhile, manages a Mobile Collective fund worth tens of millions of dollars. She has invested in over 40 mobile Internet, VR, AR and AI start-ups, including Hooked (App store's No. 1 reading App), DayDayCook (one of Asia's largest food communities), Fleksy (acquired by Pinterest), Human (acquired by Mapbox), AISense and so on.
u Analysis: The consultant team has obvious advantages in technological achievements, rich experience in technology innovation investment and incubation experience for startups.
The consultant team consists of a Maker-oriented technical talent and two venture capital managers with a senior venture capital background, among whom, Wang Zhe, technical consultant, graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software. Wang is the founder of Cocos-BCX engine. At present, the Cocos engine has 1.1 million registered developers and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions worldwide.
(四) Tech Analysis
1. Tech highlights | 9 points(1) Smart contract system which can be updated iteratively: The smart contract system, represented by Ethereum, is not subject to modification once its definition is published, making it difficult to meet the volatile demands of market. Therefore, an iterative smart contract system is designed to address this pain spot.
(2) Prop circulation platform: Unlike conventional game transaction platform, Cocos-BCX's decentralized digital asset circulation platform does not have intermediary agencies. Players can complete the transfer and purchase of non-homogeneous assets, including "game gold coins" and prop assets acquired in the game on the prop circulation platform. In the whole process of transfer, the platform will adopt smart contract for automatic matching to help users complete the transfer process more efficiently.
(3) Game interactive operation environment:
Based on the judgment of the operation environment characteristics of blockchain games in the future, Cocos-BCX has designed a set of integrated operation environment that accommodates various types of APPs, as well as the supporting interoperability interface. Combined with COCOS Creator, it simplifies the process of docking game programs and blockchain, making intra-chain interaction transparent to developers, and allowing conventional game developers to develop or migrate blockchain game without a threshold.
(4) Mapping gateway that supports multi-chain and asset riveting:
Cocos-BCX provides a set of mapping gateways used for the automatic mapping of game gold coins and props. Under the unified value measurement system, it realizes the smooth transition of different in-chain game content and different platform content. The content that can be used for mapping includes game gold coins, game equipment data, etc.
(5) Transaction authentication mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating:
BP, as the core of transaction processing and communication of the whole network, can know the processing result of the latest transaction prior to general nodes. Therefore, BP enjoys a priority for information with timeliness or confidentiality
, as compared with general nodes, so it has a cheating potential in terms of
information acquisition. To address the drawbacks of this technical link, five modular confrontation mechanisms has been specially designed to hold the likelihood of BP/developer cheating at bay.
(6) Economies Principle Design of Cocos-BCX:
The Cocos-BCX platform carries the game assets value created by developers by providing a complete set of functional components including the underlying public blockchain, digital property management, and exchanges. Its technology and governance structure design, based on the graphene standard, has the economic attributes corresponding to the DPoS consensus mechanism.
u Analysis: There are a multiplicity of technical highlights in that the overall technology construction shows characteristics such as rigid logic and prominent modularity, and various technical solutions and mechanisms with a strong pertinence have been put forward.
Based on the market pain spots of the game industry, and combined with the development opportunities of blockchain technology, the Cocos-BCX project puts forward a vision system to create consistence between the content producer and consumer in the digital world. In view of the initial intention of the project and the relatively profound background of the game industry, the overall technical structure design of the project is highly targeted and has a strong logic, which can be described as closely connected with each other. Based on the large technical framework system, each technical link and organization also has a strong sense of target and logical gene, and on this basis, many modular and modified technical programs or mechanisms have been proposed. However, it is worth noting that the synergy of a series of highlight technologies remains to be verified and examined. Meanwhile, attention should also be paid to the practicability and rationality.
2. Impossible Triangle | 7 points(1) Decentralization
Ø Low fork risk: Cocos-BCX uses the DPoS consensus mechanism, which does not require miners to use mining machines for mining, and thereby it can effectively avoid the impact of centralized computing on the entire basechain, which in turn reduces a low fork risk. Under the DPoS mechanism, if a witness wants to fork by voting, it is necessary to guarantee that over one third of the witnesses violate this mechanism at the same time.
Ø Improved DPOS consensus mechanism: The consensus layer of the Cocos-BCX test chain adopts the DPoS consensus algorithm. The advantage characteristics of the improved edition DPOS are as follows: all active witnesses have the same block predefined probability as the witnesses' predefined algorithm in the DPoS consensus algorithm, which ensures that the block probability of all witnesses is consistent with the block reward.
Ø Lightweight node: In Cocos-BCX design, lightweight node is essentially an environment with chain interoperability. Unlike the whole node, the lightweight node does not require to synchronize the whole network data. Instead, it needs the contract information and environment data required for synchronous running. This design can greatly reduce the data volume and synchronization time required for node synchronization, enabling the in-chain game terminal software to have a capacity which is actually used and a plausible time cost.
Ø Player autonomy and asset security: Because of the open and transparent characteristics of the blockchain network, the digital asset information obtained by players in the game can be viewed through the blockchain.
Ø Guarantee by modern cryptography: Modern cryptography is a technology based on mathematics. Currently, it has been widely used in many industries in the Internet domain. Common symmetric encryption technologies include AES encryption used for WiFi, and asymmetric encryption algorithms (public and private key cryptography) RSA, ECC, etc., among which, ECC (Elliptic Curves Cryptography) is an encryption algorithm commonly used in the blockchain field.
Ø A transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating: BP enjoys a priority compared with general nodes, so it has the probability to cheat in terms of information acquisition. Therefore, the BCX program has designed a set of transaction execution, messaging, and operating mechanisms to address the possible links that allow cheating by BP and developers.
Ø Iterative updated smart contract system: It can provide logical updating and loophole repair for the in-chain game smart contract, thus ensuring the security and timeliness of the smart contract.
Ø Strong expandability of the top-level design of the project
The expandability of Cocos-BCX is powerful, which is specifically shown in a decentralized game production and an overall solution to the game economy operation established by means of the game engine, development environment and Cocos-BCX game chain.
A business ecosystem is constructed based on the above overall solution, with the purpose of connecting the global game ecosystem. The main ecological links include developers, users, creative content, key ecological links and blockchain system, etc.
Ø Expanded design of specific technologies and mechanisms
u Analysis: The expandability of the project's "impossible triangle" shows the most prominently, and the decentralized attribute is the weakest, whose security is between the two. However, the project takes the three into consideration in terms of the technical mechanism and program function. Yet, the focus is different.
The project interprets the “impossible triangle” by means of thinking and design that focus on technical aspects and key issues.
The security level first guarantees the assets security and freedom of the ecosystem participants, and meanwhile ensures the rationality and security of the overall framework design, and finally takes its system updating and safe recovery into consideration mainly by means of player autonomy, modern cryptography and transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating.
3. Development difficulty | 8 pointsAccording to the summary of the project white paper, the blockchain game can be generally divided into four developmental stages.
（1）Using the homogeneous assets for the settlement of the game "gold coins";
（2）Free conversion of the game "gold coins" and props;
（3）In-chain operation of critical rules;
（4）Overall in-chain operation of the game
The game in-chain operation is the final form of the industry. Based on the above summary, Cocos-BCX proposes the future development prospect, mainly represented in seven aspects:
（1）Players having a lightweight full-node environment;
（2）The service stack operating in the blockchain environment;
（3）The game engine as one of the node infrastructures;
（4）Providing a joint development/debugging environment including engine, visual IDE, and chain network interactive interface;
（5）a set of asynchronous consensus tasks between nodes to ensure the trustworthiness of the engine environment. This consensus may be based on the discrimination of feature code of
the engine critical function's target code
(6) The game code (contract) is executed by the secure virtual machine controlled by the engine, and the key numerical calculation of the contract may adopt
the “Trusted Execution Environment” scheme, which is executed independently of the main part of the contract;
(7) The key process of the contract is witnessed by the adjacent or related nodes (like players in a copy).
u Analysis: The project covers a multiplicity of technical characteristics and functional mechanisms. The overall development is rather difficult. However, it is highly practicable in terms of performance.
At the initial stage of the project, four stages of blockchain game development were analyzed. After combing, the highest prospect was proposed, implicating to create a complete multi-platform game running environment, which can provide game developers with convenience in developing blockchain games and a perfect ecological environment to the maximum, while bringing game users a brand-new gaming experience and a game form that transcends the previous ones.
Based on the initial project prospect, numerous technical goals and functional modules are listed, indicating that the technical support for the project vision is rather effective. However, as public blockchain of the industry application basis, it encompasses various technical applications and functional modules. Comparatively speaking, the development difficulty is rather big. Meanwhile, as released by the white paper, the theoretical throughput of the Cocos-BCX test chain can reach up to 100,000 tps. The actual throughput is approximate to 3,500 tps, and the block time is 3 seconds, that is, the information broadcast across the entire network is completed once every 3 seconds. It can be seen from the project technical performance data that it has a relatively strong realistic significance. Therefore, on the whole, the project puts forward a sizeable technical challenge, and in the meantime has a reasonable practicability, therefore, it is worthwhile to look forward to!
(五) Project status
1. Product | 7 points（1）System-level products
Ø The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
Ø Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
Ø An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Ø Supporting non-homogeneous wallets;
Ø A blockchain browser that supports the contract event subscription;
Ø Supporting the third-party non-homogeneous asset exchanges;
Ø Supporting the blockchain game developed by a third party;
Ø Cross-chain asset acceptance gateway.
(2) Functional products
Ø De-intermediary assets (prop) operation interface;
Ø Paradigms of non-homogeneous assets circulation platform;
Ø Supporting player autonomy and blacksmith shop mechanism;
Ø Visual IDE (including visual editing of the game program and contract);
Ø Complete wallet, user system and blockchain browser;
Ø Smart contract system that allows iterative updating.
u Analysis: According to the information released on the official website of the project, the timeline shows that the Cocos-BCX main chain has started the closed beta test in the third quarter of 2018. Based on the obvious characteristics of the project technology module, Cocos-BCX has launched two series of projects, namely, system-level and function-level products, including development frameworks, blacksmith shop mechanisms tailored to various operations and multiple environment.
2. Code updating | 2 pointsu Analysis: It is learned from official communication that the source code of the project has not been made public for the purpose of keeping the project's trade secret confidential. It is planned that the project will be open source in the future after the ecological and system products become gradually stabilized.
3. Completion status | 8 pointsu Analysis: The project has formulated an overall development plan and recent work tasks, and at the same time it has demonstrated its strong vitality through weekly report, timeline and development broadcast.
According to the official channel inquiry, the project has formulated the Roadmap for the 2018 key milestone quarter and the recent detailed work task breakdown plan, and the project has a very complete display system featuring three major development progresses:
(1) Weekly reporting system
(2) Project timeline
(3) Development broadcast
Through the Roadmap+ work breakdown + 3 major system model, the project's development trajectory and dynamics have been display in a basically three-dimensional, spatial, meticulous and detailed manner, and in the meantime, the powerful execution and self-vitality of the project have been also displayed.
(六) Institution enabling (Investors)
1. Cooperative institutions | 9 points
u Analysis: Cocos-BCX has a wide margin for cooperation, and its cooperation institutions are not only numerous, but also mainly of leading and quality enterprises in the industry.
The cooperative institutions include HelloEOS, NEO, NEBULAS (chain), Loom, IMEOS.ONE, Kingsoft Cloud and SlowMist Technology, etc.
NEO is one of the earliest blockchain projects in China. It was officially created in 2014 and was open sourced in real time in Github in June 2015. Since its establishment, the NEO team has experienced ups and downs of the blockchain industry. This project can be said to be a veteran project in the industry. NEO combines with a series of technologies, such as point-to-point network, Byzantine fault tolerance, digital certificate, smart contract, superconducting transactions, and cross-chain interoperability protocols, to perform rapid, efficient, secure, and legitimate smart management of assets.
2. Investment institutions | 9 points
u Analysis: There are numerous investment institutions, many of which are Class I institutions, with a strong institutional strength.
Investment institutions include NGC, Binance, INB Capital, Dfund, 500 Startups, BlockVC, OK Blockchain Capital, Yisu Capital, Xiong'an Capital, ONTology, FreeS FUND, NODE Capital, Consensus Capital, Hash Capital, NEO Capital, Ticker Capital , ContractVC, Junwu Capital, Candy Capital, Hofan VC, BMETA Capital, BYTE Capital, Nimble Capital, InsurFun, BA Capital, Consensus Lab, TOKENMANIA, Byzantium Capital, etc.
The rest investment institutions are also well-known. For example, DFUND was founded by Zhao Dong, a well-known figure in the digital currency domain in July 2017. Yisu Capital is engaged in the early investment and project cooperation, focusing on blockchain technology and big data intelligence analysis, and other domains.
(七) Drawing attention | 6 points
Project content description
u Analysis: The game user and developer group are highly active, and meanwhile the publicity of the media and news client are enhanced. The overall heat and operation and maintenance thinking are well-balanced. However, the current community operation link is relatively weak, and requires improvement in the follow-up.
Presently, the number of community fans is small. Therefore, the operation link of project content is rather weak. However, media communication and news broadcasting, two links of propaganda and promotion efforts, are quite effective, basically realizing a timely and real-time posting of the latest developments of the project. Although the media and news client are widely disseminated, their social interaction is relatively weak. The social platform has its own communication limitations. However, it is highly involved in interaction.
(VIII) Social Response | 7.78User A | Point: 7.9
Comment: From the perspective of production mode and commercialization, this game is the most sophisticated. So I think this project has a very extensive application scenario, especially for developers and users.
User B | Point: 7.0
Comment: Currently, it seems that the game industry is greatly influenced by macro policies. Tencent's recent performance is a case in point. However, the project orientation is quite good.
User C | Point: 8.0
Comment: The technical advantages of the project are particularly prominent, and it also seizes the development opportunities of the blockchain. However, ultimately it needs to undergo the test of the market.
User D | Point: 9.0
Comment: First of all, COCOS has a large number of developers, solid underlying technology and reliable team work, which is worth looking forward to. Of course, great "undertaking" calls for enormous input, especially in technology. The way is arduous and long. Come on.
User E | Point: 7.0
As a game practitioner, I would talk something about Cocos-BCX project: when the concept of blockchain game is put forward for everyone to consider, at this stage, it is no doubt that the dimension (type) of the game is developed from the perspective of "inheritance" and "tracing its very origin". If the Cocos-BCX project can be applied by game developers in terms of "development kit", is easy to learn and use, and allows the mobile game developers to shift to the development of blockchain games without a threshold, then the game dimensions and users can be further expanded. In a word, phenomenal games of blockchain games need the support of Cocos-BCX and the efforts of developers, both of which are indispensable. It is hoped that the team will make great efforts in development and publicity. "Coin friends" may not need to know how the game is developed, but they will certainly care about its future space. Such evaluation can only be called prospects and expectations. It remains to be determined whether the project adopts capital operation or the mode as solid as the old engine of COCOS till the project is landed.
III. Evaluation SummaryThe project orientation is accurate, and the team has a strong lineup. It merits pointing out that its technical strength and model architecture design are particularly prominent, and there are an array of investment and cooperation institutions with strong strength. However, at present, the code has not been open sourced and the community operation and maintenance is deficient. The information disclosure of the Token link is not particularly perfect, and individual investors may care much about it. The Roadmap of the project development is all too simple. These are the deficiencies of the project development at the current moment.
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